One of the most influential French microbiologists and chemists is Louis Pasteur born on December 27, 1822. He is known for his discoveries on vaccination, pasteurization and microbial fermentations. He discovered breakthroughs in the preventions of diseases as well as the causes of several deadly illnesses. He reduced the mortality rates from puerperal fever and created vaccines for anthrax and rabies. He pioneered the medical discoveries for germ theory of disease and applied this theory in clinical medicine. Pasteur invented other technique of treating milk and wine to stop contamination. This process is known as pasteurization. He is one of the founders of bacteriology and is the father of microbiology.
Pasteur was not particularly intelligent in his early years and his interests were fishing and sketching. His pastels are kept in the museum of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, France. He entered the College Royal de Besancon and earned a degree in1840. He received his medical license in 1845 after several failed attempts. He began his research in crystallography in 1847. He was professor of chemistry at the University of Strasbourg where he met and married Marie Laurent in 1849. They had five children but only two survived typhoid. These losses were Pasteur's motivations for finding cures to infectious diseases.
Pasteur proved that fermentation is caused by microorganisms and the biogenesis contributes to emergent bacteria growth. He proved that microorganisms are responsible for milk, beer and wine spoilage. He invented a process to heat these beverages to kill bacteria and molds. He proposed ways to prevent the entry of microorganisms in other bodies. This lead Joseph Lister to develop antiseptic surgery methods. Pasteur also encouraged doctors to sanitize their hands and equipment before surgery. This technique alone saves countless lives. Pasteur used a rabies vaccine crated by Emile Roux on a 9 year old boy who had been bitten by a rabid dog. After three months, Pasteur examined the young boy and found he was in good health. The treatment's success was the foundation for the manufacture of other vaccines.
Pasteur suffered from strokes and a stoke in1894 caused severe damage. He did not recover and died in 1895.