Arturo Toscanini

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Born on March 25, 1867 Arturo Toscanini was an Italian conductor and one of the most renowned conductors of the 20th century. Toscanini is known for the intensity of his performances and his perfectionism. He has a natural ear for detail in music and his memory is photographic. He has been the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York, La Scala Milian, and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. In 1937 he was appointed music director of the NBC Symphony Orchestra.
Toscanini changed musical interpretation by having his orchestras play the music as it was written rather than using interpretation. He conducted Puccini's La Boheme, Turandot and Leoncaallo's Pagliacci. Critics today claim that Toscanini had little imagination, but it is undeniable that his conducting was inspiring.
Toscanini worked with singers and musicians throughout his career, but he particularly loved Vladimir Horowitz. The two of them recorded Brahm's piano concertos and Tchaikovsky's piano concertos. Toscanini conducted world premiers of several operas. These included La fanciulla del West, Pagliacci, and Turandot. He conducted the first Italian performances of Salome and Euryanthe and conducted in South American and North American premiers.
Toscanini and Carla De Martini married in June of 1897 and they had four children. Toscanini had a reputation of having extra marital affairs, but they remained married until Carla's death in 1951.

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